Note: This article discusses federal tax rules only. Individual states impose their own property transfer taxes using rules that may be different from the federal rules.
Each year, you can make gifts of up to $13,000 to anyone you want, to as many people as you want, tax free under the annual gift tax exclusion. You can give away twice that amount if both you and your spouse make the gifts together (this is called gift splitting). And, you can give away an unlimited amount if you pay tuition or medical bills on behalf of another person (just be sure to make these payments directly to the school or health-care provider
You can lend money to your children at the current IRS minimum interest rate (known as the AFR, which changes monthly), and then potentially forgive an amount equal to the gift tax exclusion each year. (The gift tax exclusion amount is adjusted for inflation; $13,000 is the figure for 2009.
Grantor retained annuity trust (GRAT)
A GRAT is an irrevocable trust with a specified term (e.g., 10 years) into which you gift assets that you expect will greatly increase in value in the future. You receive annuity payments during the trust term, and at the end, your beneficiaries receive any remaining propertyThe transfer of assets to the GRAT is a taxable gift to the trust beneficiaries. The value of the gift for tax purposes is determined based on the current IRS rate (known as the 7520 rate, which also changes monthlyTax savings are achieved because the annuity payments are calculated to result in a gift tax value of zero. It’s anticipated, however, that the actual interest earned will be higher than the 7520 rate, leaving a substantial value in the GRAT at the end of the term. This remaining value is passed on to your beneficiaries tax free.
Intentionally Defective Grantor Trust (IDGT)
An IDGT is an irrevocable trust that has a purposeful flaw (i.e., you retain some control over the trust) so that you, and not the trust entity, pays the income taxes on trust income (thus, an IDGT is ideal when you want to transfer income-producing assets). Even though you retain some control over the trust, IDGT assets will generally not be included in your taxable estate at your deathYou sell assets to the IDGT in return for an installment note, with interest calculated based on the current AFR. There is no gift tax because it is a “sale” (except for an initial gift that “seeds” the trust). However, because you and the trust entity are considered the same taxpayer, no gain is recognized on the sale, and interest you receive under the note is not considered taxable income>Tax savings are achieved because, hopefully, the value leaving your estate via the sale will exceed the value returned to your estate via the note. You also reduce your estate by paying the income taxes on IDGT income.
Charitable lead trust (CLT)
A CLT is an irrevocable trust with both charitable and noncharitable beneficiaries. It’s called a lead trust because it is the charity that is entitled to the first or lead interest from the trust property. After the specified term, the remaining trust property passes to you or another named noncharitable beneficiaryAt the time assets are placed into the CLT, you receive a current gift tax deduction equal to the present value of the income stream that will be going to the charity. The interest rate used is based on the current 7520 rate. The lower the interest rate, the higher the deduction. As with a GRAT or IDGT, it is hoped that the CLT assets will appreciate beyond the 7520 rate, allowing the excess to pass tax free.
These gifting strategies, and others, can turn this economic downturn into a mixed blessing.